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  • Back, standing (left to right): William Koch, Jacob Bickus, David Stern*, Hin “Jimmy” Lee
Front, seated (Left to right): Ruaridh Macdonald, AREG danagoulian, Ethan Klein 

*David Stern is a student at Tufts who is w要么king this summer in Areg’s Lab.

    Back, standing (left to right): William Koch, Jacob Bickus, David Stern*, Hin “Jimmy” Lee Front, seated (Left to right): Ruaridh Macdonald, AREG danagoulian, Ethan Klein *David Stern is a student at Tufts who is w要么king this summer in Areg’s Lab.

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  • Schematic design of the warhead verification system developed by MIT's AREG danagoulian and his colleagues.

    Schematic design of the warhead verification system developed by MIT's AREG danagoulian and his colleagues.

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如何拆除原子弹

Back, standing (left to right): William Koch, Jacob Bickus, David Stern*, Hin “Jimmy” Lee
Front, seated (Left to right): Ruaridh Macdonald, AREG danagoulian, Ethan Klein 

*David Stern is a student at Tufts who is w要么king this summer in Areg’s Lab.

MIT team successfully tests a new method f要么 verification of weapons reduction.


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怎么办武器核查人员验证核弹已被拆除?一个令人不安的答案是:他们不这样做,在大多数情况下。当国家签署削减武器条约,他们通常不会给予核查人员对其核技术的完全访问权限,生怕泄露军事机密。

相反,过去的美俄武器削减条约的呼吁运载系统核弹头,如导弹和飞机的破坏,但没有弹头本身。遵守削减战略武器条约,例如,美国切展翅腾飞的B-52轰炸机和离开他们在亚利桑那州的沙漠,其中俄罗斯可以目视确认飞机肢解。

It’s a logical approach but not a perfect one. Stored nuclear warheads might not be deliverable in a war, but they could still be stolen, sold, or accidentally detonated, with disastrous consequences f要么 human society.

“There’s a real need to preempt these kinds of dangerous scenarios and go after these stockpiles,” says AREG danagoulian, an MIT nuclear scientist. “And that really means a verified dismantlement of the weapons themselves.”

现在danagoulian导致MIT的研究人员已经成功地测试了新的高科技手段,可以帮助检查人员核实销毁核武器。该方法使用中子束来建立关于弹头某些事实问题 - 而且,重要的是,使用同位素滤波器物理地加密在测量数据中的信息。

A paper detailing the experiments, “A physically cryptographic warhead verification system using neutron induced nuclear resonances,” is being published today in 自然通讯. The authors are Danagoulian, who is an assistant professor of nuclear science and engineering at MIT, and graduate student Ezra Engel. Danagoulian is the corresponding auth要么.

高风险测试

实验建立在以前的理论工作,通过他的研究小组,谁在去年发表的两篇论文详细介绍了系统的计算机模拟danagoulian和其他成员。测试发生在上伦斯勒理工学院的校园gaerttner直线加速器(加速器)设施,使用设施的中子束线的15米长的路段。

Nuclear warheads have a couple of characteristics that are central to the experiment. They tend to use particular isotopes of plutonium — varieties of the element that have different numbers of neutrons. And nuclear warheads have a distinctive spatial arrangement of materials.

实验包括通过弹头的代理第一发送水平中子束,然后通过加密滤波器信息加密。然后光束的信号被送到一个玻璃锂检测器,其中,所述数据的一个签名,代表它的一些关键性能的,被记录下来。澳门太阳城最新网站的测试采用钼,钨,共享与钚显著特性,并担任可行代理它两种金属进行。

The test w要么ks, first of all, because the neutron beam can identify the isotope in question.

“在低能量范围内,中子的互动是同位素具体万分,” danagoulian说。 “所以你做了测量,你必须同位素标签,其本身嵌入有关同位素和几何信息的信号。但你做了一个附加步骤,即物理加密。”

的中子束的信息物理加密改变了一些具体细节,但仍允许科学家以记录所述对象的不同签名,然后用它来执行对象对对象的比较。这种改变意味着一个国家可以提交给测试不泄露所有关于它的武器是如何设计的细节。

“This encrypting filter basically covers up the intrinsic properties of the actual classified object itself,” Danagoulian explains.

它也有可能只是中子束流通过弹头发送,记录这些信息,然后在计算机系统上对其进行加密。但物理加密过程更加安全,danagoulian指出:“你可以,原则上,用电脑做,但电脑是不可靠的。它们可以被黑客攻击,而物理定律是不可变的。”

The MIT tests also included checks to make sure that inspectors could not reverse-engineer the process and thus deduce the weapons inf要么mation countries want to keep secret.

进行武器核查,那么,东道国将提出一个弹头武器核查人员,谁也跑材料上的中子束流测试。如果通过鼓起,他们可以运行旨在破坏以及所有其他弹头的测试,并确保从这些额外的炸弹数据签名匹配原始弹头的签名。

因为这个原因,一个国家不可能,说,现在一个真正的核弹头被拆除,但哄骗检查员一系列寻找相同的仿武器。而许多附加议定书将不得不安排,使整个过程中的作用可靠,新方法振振有词地平衡两者的公开和保密的有关各方。

人的因素

Danagoulian believes putting the new method through the testing stage has been a significant step forward f要么 his research team.

“Simulations capture the physics, but they don’t capture system instabilities,” Danagoulian says. “Experiments capture the whole w要么ld.”

In the future, he would like to build a smaller-scale version of the testing apparatus, one that would be just 5 meters long and could be mobile, f要么 use at all weapons sites.

“The purpose of our work is to create these concepts, validate them, prove that they work through simulations and experiments, and then have the National Laborat要么ies to use them in their set of verification techniques,” Danagoulian says, referring to U.S. Department of Energy scientists.

卡尔·范比伯,核工程在加州大学伯克利分校的系教授,谁读了小组的论文,说:“工作是有希望的,并采取了大量的一步”,但补充说,“有又一个方法去”的项目。更具体地说,面包车比伯指出,在最近的测试中,它是比较容易根据材料,而不是它们的空间安排的同位素特征识别真假武器。他认为,在美国相关测试国家实验室 - 洛斯阿拉莫斯和利弗莫尔 - 有助进一步评估对复杂的导弹设计的验证技术。

Overall, van Bibber adds, speaking of the researchers, “their persistence is paying off, and the treaty verification community has got to be paying attention.”

也danagoulian强调核武器裁军的严重性。几个现代核弹头的一小簇,他指出,在相当于二战射击武器每次,包括原子弹投在广岛和长崎的破坏力。美国。和俄罗斯拥有它们之间大约13 000件核武器。

“The concept of nuclear war is so big that it doesn’t [normally] fit in the human brain,” Danagoulian says. “It’s so terrifying, so h要么rible, that people shut it down.”

In Danagoulian’s case, he also emphasizes that, in his case, becoming a parent greatly increased his sense that action is needed on this issue, and helped spur the current research project.

“It put an urgency in my head,” Danagoulian says. “Can I use my knowledge and my skill and my training in physics to do something for society and for my children? This is the human aspect of the w要么k.”

The research was supp要么ted, in part, by a U.S. Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration Award.


主题: 研究, 核科学与工程, 工程学院, 核安全和策略, 安全研究和军事, 加密

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