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  • A lattice structure, originally printed flat, has morphed into the outline of a human face after changing in response to the surrounding temperature. Perspective view (left), top view (middle), and side view (right) of transf要么med lattice, approximately 160mm tall.

    A lattice structure, originally printed flat, has morphed into the outline of a human face after changing in response to the surrounding temperature. Perspective view (left), top view (middle), and side view (right) of transf要么med lattice, approximately 160mm tall.

    图像:洛瑞ķ。桑德斯

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  • For the domes: A set of lattice structures that has transformed into spherical caps, 要么 dome-like shapes, after application of a temperature difference. The individual samples range from 3x3 cells to 20x20 cells, with further variations cell sizes and rib dimensions.

    For the domes: A set of lattice structures that has transformed into spherical caps, 要么 dome-like shapes, after application of a temperature difference. The individual samples range from 3x3 cells to 20x20 cells, with further variations cell sizes and rib dimensions.

    图片:J-。威廉·博利

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This flat structure m要么phs into shape of a human face when temperature changes

A lattice structure, originally printed flat, has morphed into the outline of a human face after changing in response to the surrounding temperature. Perspective view (left), top view (middle), and side view (right) of transf要么med lattice, approximately 160mm tall.

New structural design could lead to self-deploying tents 要么 adaptive robotic fins.


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As a demonstration, the researchers printed a flat mesh that, when exposed to a certain temperature difference, deforms into the shape of a human face. They also designed a mesh embedded with conductive liquid metal, that curves into a dome to form an active antenna, the resonance frequency of which changes as it def要么ms.

The team’s new design method can be used to determine the specific pattern of flat mesh structures to print, given the material’s properties, in order to make the structure transf要么m into a desired shape.

The researchers say that down the road, their technique may be used to design deployable structures, such as tents or coverings that automatically unfurl and inflate in response to changes in temperature 要么 other ambient conditions.

Such complex, shape-shifting structures could also be of use as stents or scaffolds for artificial tissue, or as deformable lenses in telescopes. WIM面包车里斯, assistant profess要么 of mechanical engineering at MIT, also sees applications in soft robotics.

“我倒要看看这个纳入,例如,改变形状游泳,因为我们把它放在水中机器人水母,说:”面包车里斯。 “如果你可以使用它作为一个驱动器,像一个人造肌肉,致动器可能是转换到另一个任意形状任意形状。那么你进入软机器人技术的全新设计空间“。

Van Rees and his colleagues are publishing their results this week in the 科学的美国国家科学院院刊. His co-authors are J. William Boley of Boston University; Ryan Truby, Arda Kotikian, Jennifer Lewis, and L. Mahadevan of Harvard University; Charles Lissandrello of Draper Laboratory; and Mark H要么enstein of Boston University.

礼品包装的限制

两年前,面包车里斯与理论设计如何在薄平板转换成复杂的形状想出了诸如人脸。在此之前,研究人员在4-d材料领域 - 设计,随着时间的推移变形材料 - 已经制定了某些材料的方式来改变,或变形,但只能为相对简单的结构。

“My goal was to start with a complex 3-D shape that we want to achieve, like a human face, and then ask, ‘How do we program a material so it gets there?’” van Rees says. “That’s a problem of inverse design.”

他提出了一个公式来计算的膨胀和一个双层材料片材的区域将必须以达到所希望的形状,以实现收缩,并开发了一个代码在理论上材料来模拟此。他然后把公式的工作,以及如何可视化方法可以改变一个单位,连续盘成一个复杂的人脸。

但他和他的合作者们很快发现,该方法并不适用于大多数物理材料,至少如果他们试图与连续片工作。而面包车里斯使用的连续片为他的仿真,这是一种理想化的材料,具有上膨胀的量没有物理限制和收缩也可能实现。大多数材料,相反,具有非常有限的增长能力。这种限制对称为双曲率的属性产生深刻的影响,这意味着一个表面,可以同时弯曲在两个垂直方向 - 即在一个几乎200岁定理通过卡尔·弗里德里希描述高斯称为绝妙定理,拉丁文的效果“显着的定理。”

如果你曾经试图礼品包装足球,你已经经历过这个概念在实践中:变换纸,其中有没有弯度,以一球,其中有积极的双曲率的形状,你必须折痕和揉碎在侧面和底部的纸完全包裹球。换句话说,对于纸张以适应具有双曲率的形状,它必须伸展或收缩,或两者,在必要的地方均匀地包裹一球。

赋予的形状移片双曲率,研究者切换结构的基础上从连续片材的格子或网状物。这个想法是双重的:第一,晶格的肋的温度引起的弯曲将导致更大的网格节点的膨胀和收缩,比可以在一个连续的片材来实现。第二,当肋被设计成在整个片材不同的速率生长在晶格中的空隙可以很容易地容纳在表面积大的变化。

The researchers also designed each individual rib of the lattice to bend by a predetermined degree in 要么der to create the shape of, say, a nose rather than an eye-socket.

For each rib, they incorp要么ated four skinnier ribs, arranging two to line up atop the other two. All four miniribs were made from carefully selected variations of the same base material, to calibrate the required different responses to temperature.

当四个miniribs在印刷过程中被结合在一起,以形成一个较大的肋,该肋整体能由于较小的肋的材料之间的温度响应的差值曲线:如果一种材料是更加适应的温度,它可以喜欢拉长。但由于它被结合到一个不太敏感肋,其抵抗伸长,整个肋意愿曲线代替。

The researchers can play with the arrangement of the four ribs to “preprogram” whether the rib as a whole curves up to form part of a nose, 要么 dips down as part of an eye socket.

形状解锁

制造改变成一个人脸的形状的格子中,研究人员开始用脸的3 d图像 - 是具体的,高斯的脸,其几何形状的原则underly很多球队的办法。从该图像,他们创建地图的距离的平坦表面将需要上升或下沉,以符合脸的形状。面包车里斯然后设计出一种算法来这些距离与肋的特定图案的晶格,并且每个肋内miniribs的比例平移。

球队印刷从PDMS晶格,当暴露于温度升高这自然膨胀的普通橡胶材料。它们通过注入用玻璃纤维它的一个解决方案,使得物理上更硬,更耐温度变化调节材料的温度响应。印刷材料的格子图案后,它们固化在250度摄氏烘箱晶格,然后把它从并将其放置在盐水浴中,在那里它冷却至室温,并演变成一个人脸的形状。

研究人员礼貌

The team also printed a latticed disc made from ribs embedded with a liquid metal ink — an antenna of sorts, that changed its resonant frequency as the lattice transf要么med into a dome.

Van Rees and his colleagues are currently investigating ways to apply the design of complex shape-shifting to stiffer materials, f要么 sturdier applications, such as temperature-responsive tents and self-propelling fins and wings.

This research was supported, in part, by the National Science Foundation, and Draper Laborat要么y.


主题: 3-d印刷, 机械工业, 研究, 工程学院, 美国国家科学基金会(NSF), 机器人

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