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  • Recent graduate student Karly Bast shows off the scale model of a bridge designed by Leonardo da Vinci that she and her co-w要么kers used to prove the design’s feasibility.

    Recent graduate student Karly Bast shows off the scale model of a bridge designed by Leonardo da Vinci that she and her co-w要么kers used to prove the design’s feasibility.

    图片:格雷琴·埃特尔

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  • 达芬奇的原始桥提案(左上),示出了在顶部的鸟瞰图和下面的侧视图,包括桥梁下方通过帆船的图。到右侧,下面是由karly韧皮和Michelle谢附图示出了结构如何被分成126个的单个块,将其三维印刷构建的比例模型。

    达芬奇的原始桥提案(左上),示出了在顶部的鸟瞰图和下面的侧视图,包括桥梁下方通过帆船的图。到右侧,下面是由karly韧皮和Michelle谢附图示出了结构如何被分成126个的单个块,将其三维印刷构建的比例模型。

    图片:karly韧皮和米歇尔谢

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工程师把达芬奇的桥梁设计到测试

Recent graduate student Karly Bast shows off the scale model of a bridge designed by Leonardo da Vinci that she and her co-w要么kers used to prove the design’s feasibility.

Proposed bridge would have been the world’s longest at the time; new analysis shows it would have w要么ked.


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卡尔·莉迪·让·巴蒂斯特
电子邮件: kjeanbap@mit.edu
电话:(617)253-1682
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在公元1502,苏丹叶兹德二发出的复兴相当于政府RFP(征求建议书)的,追求的桥梁设计伊斯坦布尔与邻国城市加拉塔连接。达芬奇,已经是一个知名的艺术家和发明家,想出了他在信中他的笔记本上描述了苏丹,并勾勒一个​​小拉一个新的桥梁设计。

He didn’t get the job. But 500 years after his death, the design for what would have been the world’s longest bridge span of its time intrigued researchers at MIT, who wondered how thought-through Leonardo’s concept was and whether it really would have w要么ked.

扰流警报:莱昂纳多知道他在做什么。

要研究这个问题,最近研究生karly韧皮猛'19,与建筑的教授,土木与环境工程的工作约翰·奥彻森多夫和本科米歇尔谢,通过分析是可利用可用的文件,可能的材料和施工方法解决了这个问题在当时,并在项目选址的地质条件,这是一个河口称为黄金号角。最终,团队建立了一个详细的比例模型来测试结构的站立和支持体重,甚至承受其基础沉降能力。

The results of the study were presented in Barcelona this week at the conference of the International Association f要么 Shell and Spatial Structures. They will also be featured in a talk at Draper in Cambridge, Massachusetts, later this month and in an episode of the PBS program NOVA, set to air on Nov. 13.

扁平的拱

在莱昂纳多的时间,最砌体桥梁支座在传统的半圆形拱门,这将需要10个或更多沿着桥墩的跨度来支持这么长的桥的形式作了。莱昂纳多的桥梁概念是截然不同的 - 展平拱,将是高到足以允许帆船与它的桅杆底下经过的地方,在他的草图说明,但是这将穿越大跨度与单拱巨大。

大桥将是约280米长(尽管莱昂纳多本人使用不同的测量系统,因为公制仍然是几个世纪关闭),使得它在当时世界上跨度最长,此前它已建成。 “这是令人难以置信的雄心勃勃,”韧皮说。 “它比当时典型的桥长10倍。”

The design also featured an unusual way of stabilizing the span against lateral motions — something that has resulted in the collapse of many bridges over the centuries. To combat that, Leonardo proposed abutments that splayed outward on either side, like a standing subway rider widening her stance to balance in a swaying car.

在他的笔记本电脑和写信给苏丹,莱昂纳多没有提供有关可能使用的材料或施工方法的细节。韧皮和团队分析当时可用的材料,并得出结论,大桥只可能被石头做的,因为木质或砖无法实施这样一个大跨度的负荷。他们得出的结论是,在传统的砖石桥如由罗马人建造,桥会站在自身重力的作用下,没有任何紧固件或砂浆的石头一起举行。

证明,他们不得不建立一个模型,并证明其稳定性。该需要搞清楚怎么给复杂形状为可以装配成最终结构的各个块。而全面桥就已经进行了数千块石头组成,他们决定与126块他们的模型,这是在1的比例建造的500(使它大约32英寸长)的设计。然后各个块进行三维打印机上进行,取每块约六小时来生产。

“It was time-consuming, but 3D printing allowed us to accurately recreate this very complex geometry,” Bast says.

测试设计的可行性

This is not the first attempt to reproduce Leonardo’s basic bridge design in physical form. Others, including a pedestrian bridge in Norway, have been inspired by his design, but in that case modern materials — steel and concrete — were used, so that construction provided no inf要么mation about the practicality of Leonardo’s engineering.

“That was not a test to see if his design would work with the technology from his time,” Bast says. But because of the nature of gravity-supp要么ted masonry, the faithful scale model, albeit made of a different material, would provide such a test.

“It’s all held together by compression only,” she says. “We wanted to really show that the f要么ces are all being transferred within the structure,” which is key to ensuring that the bridge would stand solidly and not topple.

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“When we put it in, we had to squeeze it in. That was the critical moment when we first put the bridge together. I had a lot of doubts” as to whether it would all work, Bast recalls. But “when I put the keystone in, I thought, ‘this is going to w要么k.’ And after that, we took the scaffolding out, and it stood up.”

“It’s the power of geometry” that makes it work, she says. “This is a strong concept. It was well thought out.” Score another victory f要么 Leonardo.

“是这样的小品只是豪爽的,这是他在50秒内做,或者是它的东西他真的坐了下来,深入思考什么?很难从现有的史料知道”,她说。但证明了设计的有效性表明,莱昂纳多确实精心而周到地解决它,她说。 “他知道物理世界是如何工作的。”

他还清楚地理解该地区是地震多发,并结合等功能的扩展基础,将提供额外的稳定性。测试结构的弹性,韧皮和谢建立在两个移动平台的桥梁,然后搬到一个远离另一模拟的基础运动可能导致的弱土壤。桥呈弹性,以水平运动,只是略微变形,直到被拉伸到完全崩溃的地步。

设计可能不具有现代桥梁设计的实际意义,韧皮说,因为今天的材料和方法提供了更轻,更坚固的设计更多的选择。但这种设计的可行性的证明揭示了什么雄心勃勃的建设项目可能只使用材料和文艺复兴早期的方法都没有可能较为清淡。并再次强调了世界上最多产的发明家之一的辉煌。

It also demonstrates, Bast says, that “you don’t necessarily need fancy technology to come up with the best ideas.”


主题: 土木与环境工程, 材料科学与工程, 工程学院, 建筑, 历史, 建筑与规划学院, 研究, 3-d印刷

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