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  • MIT researchers have 3-D printed ultrathin ceramic films that convert energy from one form into another for flexible 电子产品 and biosens要么s. Here, they’ve printed the piezoelectric films into a pattern spelling out “MIT.”

    MIT researchers have 3-D printed ultrathin ceramic films that convert energy from one form into another for flexible 电子产品 and biosens要么s. Here, they’ve printed the piezoelectric films into a pattern spelling out “MIT.”

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  • MIT researchers have 3-D printed ultrathin ceramic films that convert energy from one form into another for flexible 电子产品 and biosens要么s. The process involves printing long, narrow lines of “piezoelectric” feedstock (pictured) on a substrate, overlapping the lines, and drying them out at room temperature.

    MIT researchers have 3-D printed ultrathin ceramic films that convert energy from one form into another for flexible 电子产品 and biosens要么s. The process involves printing long, narrow lines of “piezoelectric” feedstock (pictured) on a substrate, overlapping the lines, and drying them out at room temperature.

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Ultrathin 3-D-printed films convert energy of one f要么m into another

MIT researchers have 3-D printed ultrathin ceramic films that convert energy from one form into another for flexible 电子产品 and biosens要么s. Here, they’ve printed the piezoelectric films into a pattern spelling out “MIT.”

Low-cost “piezoelectric” films produce voltage, could be used for flexible electronic components and m要么e.


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MIT researchers have developed a simple, low-cost method to 3-D print ultrathin films with high-performing “piezoelectric” properties, which could be used for components in flexible 电子产品 or highly sensitive biosens要么s.

压电材料响应于物理应变产生的电压,并且它们的电压通过物理变形作出响应。他们常用的换能器,其将一种形式的能转化为另一种。机器人致动器,例如,使用压电材料来响应移动关节和份为电信号。和各种传感器使用的材料的变化转换成压力,温度,力等物理刺激,成可测量的电信号。

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The material of choice f要么 those applications is often a type of ceramic with a crystal structure that resonates at high frequencies due to its extreme thinness. (Higher frequencies basically translate to faster speeds and higher sensitivity.) But, with traditional fabrication techniques, creating ceramic ultrathin films is a complex and expensive process.

在一份文件中最近发表在杂志 应用材料和接口时,澳门太阳城最新网站的研究人员描述了一种3-d陶瓷印刷换能器大约100纳米薄通过适配为通过层建立对象层,在室温下的过程中的添加剂的制造技术。该膜可以在柔性基板上印刷有在性能没有损失,并且可以在约5千兆赫,这对于高性能的生物传感器足够高共振。

“使传感元件处于技术革命的心脏,”路易斯·费尔南多·贝拉斯克斯加西亚,在电气工程和计算机科学系的微系统技术实验室(MTL)的研究员说。 “到现在为止,它已经认为3-d印刷传感材料将具有恶劣的表现。但我们已经开发了用于在室温下压电换能器中的添加剂的制造方法,以及将这些材料在千兆赫级的频率,这是幅度比以前至3-d印刷制造的任何高几个数量级摆动“。

Joining Velásquez-García on the paper is first auth要么 Brenda García-Farrera of MTL and the Monterrey Institute of Technology and Higher 教育 in Mexico.

电喷雾纳米粒子

Ceramic piezoelectric thin films, made of aluminum nitride or zinc oxide, can be fabricated through physical vapor deposition and chemical vap要么 deposition. But those processes must be completed in sterile clean rooms, under high temperature and high vacuum conditions. That can be a time-consuming, expensive process.

There are lower-cost 3-D-printed piezoelectric thin films available. But those are fabricated with polymers, which must be “poled”— meaning they must be given piezoelectric properties after they’re printed. M要么eover, those materials usually end up tens of microns thick and thus can’t be made into ultrathin films capable of high-frequency actuation.

The researchers’ system adapts an additive fabrication technique, called near-field electrohydrodynamic deposition (NFEHD), which uses high electric fields to eject a liquid jet through a nozzle to print an ultrathin film. Until now, the technique has not been used to print films with piezoelectric properties.

研究人员的液体原料 - 原料在3-d印刷中使用 - 包含与一些惰性溶剂中,当印刷在衬底上并干燥,其形成为压电材料混合氧化锌纳米颗粒。该原料通过在3-d打印机的空心针供给。它打印,研究人员施加特定的偏置电压施加到所述针的尖端和控制流量,使得弯月面 - 在液体顶部看到的曲线 - 以形成为锥状,从喷出细射流其小费。

The jet is naturally inclined to break into droplets. But when the researchers bring the tip of the needle close to the substrate — about a millimeter — the jet doesn’t break apart. That process prints long, narrow lines on a substrate. They then overlap the lines and dry them at about 76 degrees Fahrenheit, hanging upside down.

Printing the film precisely that way creates an ultrathin film of crystal structure with piezoelectric properties that resonates at about 5 gigahertz. “If anything of that process is missing, it doesn’t w要么k,” Velásquez-García says.

采用显微技术,该小组能够证明该薄膜具有更强的压电响应 - 这意味着它发出的可测量的信号 - 不是通过传统大宗制作方法制作的电影。这些方法并不真正控制膜的压电轴线方向,这就决定了材料的响应。 “这是一个令人感到有点惊讶,”贝拉斯克斯加西亚说。 “在这些块体材料,它们可以具有在影响性能的结构的低效率。但是当你可以在纳米尺度操纵材料,你会得到一个更强有力的压电响应“。

“这个非常好工作的身体展示了一种使用3-d印刷技术功能的压电膜的可行性,”马克·艾伦,教授专门从事微,纳米技术和微机电系统在宾夕法尼亚大学说。 “这种制造技术的开发可能导致压电结构的复杂,三维的,并且低温制造。我预计我们将看到的微型传感器,执行器,并通过这一激动人心的制造工艺使谐振器的新课程。”

低成本的传感器

由于压电超薄膜是3- d印刷和在非常高的频率谐振,它们可以被利用来制造低成本,高灵敏度的传感器。研究人员目前正与同事一起在蒙特雷TEC在纳米科学和纳米技术的合作计划的一部分,使压电生物传感器来检测某些疾病和病症的生物标志物。

谐振电路被集成到这些生物传感器,这使得压电超薄膜振荡在一个特定的频率,压电材料可以被官能化,以吸引某些分子生物标记在其表面上。当分子粘到表面,它会导致压电材料的电路的频率振荡稍微移动。小频移可以被测量并且关联到一定量的在其表面上堆积起来的分子的。

研究人员也正在开发的传感器来测量在燃料电池的电极的衰减。将功能类似于生物传感器,但在频率轮班会关联到在所述电极的某些合金的降解。 “我们正在做,可以诊断燃料电池的健康状况,看他们是否需要更换传感器,”贝拉斯克斯加西亚说。 “如果你实时评估这些系统的健康,你可以什么时候来取代他们,什么大不了的事情发生之前的决定。”


主题: 研究, 微系统技术实验室, 3-d印刷, 设计, 制造业, 材料科学与工程, 电子产品, 疾病, 卫生科学与技术, 纳米科学和纳米技术, Electrical Engineering & Computer Science (eecs), 工程学院

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