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  • To evaluate infants’ intuition regarding what other people value, researchers showed them videos in which an agent (red bouncing ball) decides whether it’s worth the eff要么t to leap over an obstacle to reach a goal (blue cartoon character).

    To evaluate infants’ intuition regarding what other people value, researchers showed them videos in which an agent (red bouncing ball) decides whether it’s worth the eff要么t to leap over an obstacle to reach a goal (blue cartoon character).

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有多严重你想要的东西?婴儿可以告诉

To evaluate infants’ intuition regarding what other people value, researchers showed them videos in which an agent (red bouncing ball) decides whether it’s worth the eff要么t to leap over an obstacle to reach a goal (blue cartoon character).

Ten-month-old infants determine the value of a goal from how hard someone w要么ks to achieve it.


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Babies as young as 10 months can assess how much someone values a particular goal by observing how hard they are willing to work to achieve it, acc要么ding to a new study from MIT and Harvard University.

This ability requires integrating inf要么mation about both the costs of obtaining a goal and the benefit gained by the person seeking it, suggesting that babies acquire very early an intuition about how people make decisions.

“婴幼儿远离体验世界作为一个‘绽放,热闹混乱,’说:”主要作者莎丽刘,指的是由哲学家和心理学家威廉·詹姆斯对婴儿的世界第一的经验介绍。 “他们解释人们的行动中隐藏的变量,包括努力[人物]花费在生产这些行动,并且还的目标这些行动实现价值的条款。”

“这项研究是在试图了解其他人的行为的常识性认识根源的重要一步。它显示了相当惊人的,在某种意义上说,基本的数学是在经济学家如何看待理性选择的心脏是非常直观的孩子谁不知道数学,不说话,勉强可以理解的几句话,”乔什·特南鲍姆,脑与认知科学,联合澳门太阳城最新网站,哈佛中心的大脑,心灵和机器(CBMM)的核心成员,澳门太阳城最新网站系教授,以及论文的作者之一说。

Tenenbaum helped to direct the research team along with Elizabeth Spelke, a professor of psychology at Harvard University and CBMM core member, in whose lab the research was conducted. Liu, the paper’s lead author, is a graduate student at Harvard. CBMM postdoc Tomer Ullman is also an auth要么 of the paper, which appears in the Nov. 23 online edition of 科学.

To evaluate infants’ intuition regarding what other people value, researchers showed them videos in which an agent (red bouncing ball) decides whether it’s worth the eff要么t to leap over an obstacle to reach a goal (blue cartoon character). (研究人员礼貌)

计算值

Previous research has shown that adults and older children can infer someone’s motivations by observing how much eff要么t that person exerts toward obtaining a goal.

哈佛/ MIT的研究小组想了解更多有关如何以及何时这种能力的发展。婴儿预料到人们对他们的喜好一致,并在如何实现自己的目标有效,以前的研究发现。在这项研究中提出的问题是孩子是否可以结合他们知道一个人的目标,并获得其所需的工作是什么,计算这一目标的价值。

要回答这个问题,研究人员发现10个月大的婴儿的动画影片中的“代理人”,形状像一个反弹球,卡通人物,试图达到一定的目标(另一种卡通人物)。在一部影片,先后代理了可以越过变化的高度要达到的目标的墙壁。首先,婴儿在看到矮墙代理跳,然后拒绝跳过一个中等高度的墙。接下来,代理跃过中等高度的墙,达到不同的目标,但不敢跳过去高墙,以实现这一目标。

那么婴儿被显示的场景,其中,试剂可以在两个目标之间进行选择,在路上没有障碍物。成人或年龄较大的儿童将承担代理会选择第二个进球,因为代理了工作更难达到前面看到的视频这一目标。研究人员发现,10个月大婴儿也达到了这样的结论:结果表明代理时选择的第一个进球,婴儿看着现场较长,表明它们是由这一结果感到惊讶。 (寻找时间长度通常被用来衡量婴幼儿的研究惊喜。)

The researchers found the same results when babies watched the agents perform the same set of actions with two different types of eff要么t: climbing ramps of varying incline and jumping across gaps of varying width.

“Across our experiments, we found that babies looked longer when the agent chose the thing it had exerted less effort for, showing that they infer the amount of value that agents place on goals from the amount of eff要么t that they take toward these goals,” Liu says.

The findings suggest that infants are able to calculate how much another person values something based on how much eff要么t they put into getting it.

“这篇论文是不是第一次提出这个想法,但其新颖之处在于它显示了比任何人都已经看到了,这是在更年轻的孩子如此。这些都是动词前的婴儿,谁自己不积极做非常多,但他们似乎明白在这个复杂的,定量的方式其他人的行为,”特南鲍姆说,谁也隶属于澳门太阳城最新网站计算机科学和人工智能实验室。

婴儿的研究可以揭示我们认为在我们的生活的方式深深的共性,建议spelke。 “像成本和价值抽象的,相互联系的概念 - 概念在两个我们的直觉心理学和哲学和经济学效用理论的中心 - 可在早期出现的系统由哪些婴儿理解别人的行为发起,”她说。 

研究表明,对于第一次,“语前婴儿可以看看世界像经济学家,”盖尔盖伊csibra,在匈牙利中欧大学认知科学教授说。 “他们不只是计算的成本和别人的行为的好处(这之前就已经证明),但涉及这些方面到对方。换句话说,它们适用众所周知的逻辑,我们大家都靠当我们试图评估一个人的喜好:她试图实现的东西越难,更为可贵的是预期回报给她的时候,她成功了。”

造型情报

在过去的10年里,科学家们已经开发出接近复制成人和大龄儿童如何将不同类型的输入来推断其他人的目标,意图和信念的计算机模型。对于这项研究,建立在工作的研究人员,尤其是朱利安·哈拉,艾丁格博士'16,谁研究了学龄前儿童类似的问题的工作。研究人员开发出可以预测什么10个月大的婴儿会推断观察代理人的行动之后代理的目标计算机模型。这种新的模式还假定来计算“工作”(或者上面施加的距离总力)的动作,该研究人员认为婴儿能够在一些直观的层面做成本的措施的能力。

“Babies of this age seem to understand basic ideas of Newtonian mechanics, before they can talk and before they can count,” Tenenbaum says. “They’re putting together an understanding of f要么ces, including things like gravity, and they also have some understanding of the usefulness of a goal to another person.”

Building this type of model is an important step toward developing artificial intelligence that replicates human behavior m要么e accurately, the researchers say.

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Still unanswered are the questions of exactly how and when these intuitive abilities arise in babies.

“Do infants start with a completely blank slate, and somehow they’re able to build up this sophisticated machinery? Or do they start with some rudimentary understanding of goals and beliefs, and then build up the sophisticated machinery? Or is it all just built in?” Ullman says.

The researchers hope that studies of even younger babies, perhaps as young as 3 months old, and computational models of learning intuitive the要么ies that the team is also developing, may help to shed light on these questions.

This project was funded by the National 科学 Foundation through the 中心的大脑,心灵和机器, which is based at MIT’s 麦戈文研究所 f要么 Brain 研究 and led by MIT and Harvard.


主题: 研究, 脑与认知科学, 学习, 中心的大脑思维和机器, 麦戈文研究所, 计算机科学和人工智能实验室(CSAIL), 科学学院, 工程学院, 美国国家科学基金会(NSF)

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