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  • Shown here is a prototype laptop power adapter made by 剑桥电子 using GaN transist要么s. At 1.5 cubic inches in volume, this is the smallest laptop power adapter ever made.

    Shown here is a prototype laptop power adapter made by 剑桥电子 using GaN transist要么s. At 1.5 cubic inches in volume, this is the smallest laptop power adapter ever made.

    Courtesy of 剑桥电子

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使得新的硅

Shown here is a prototype laptop power adapter made by 剑桥电子 using GaN transist要么s. At 1.5 cubic inches in volume, this is the smallest laptop power adapter ever made.

Gallium nitride 电子产品 could drastically cut energy usage in data centers, consumer devices.


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An exotic material called gallium nitride (GaN) is poised to become the next semiconductor f要么 power 电子产品, enabling much higher efficiency than silicon.

在2013年,美国能源部(DOE)投入约半个$ 140万美元的研究机构对电力电子甘的研究,理由是它的潜力,以减少全球能源消耗。现在澳门太阳城最新网站分拆剑桥大学电子公司。 (CEI)宣布氮化镓晶体管和电力电子电路的线,承诺了10至20%的全球2025年削减了数据中心,电动汽车和消费类设备的能源消耗。

电力电子技术是用于将电力转换为更高或更低的电压和电流不同普遍存在的技术 - 电,如笔记本电脑的电源适配器,或在转换电压的变电站,并分发给消费者。许多这些功率电子系统的依赖于接通和关断来调节电压,但由于速度和电阻的限制,浪费能量作为热硅晶体管。

CEI的甘晶体管具有至少十分之一这样基于硅的晶体管的电阻,根据该公司。这允许更高的能量效率,和订单的数量级更快的开关频率 - 这意味着与这些组件功率电子系统可以做得更小。 CEI正在利用其晶体管,使电力电子,这将使数据中心的能源密集度较低,电动汽车更便宜,更强大,笔记本电脑电源适配器三分之一大小 - 甚至小到可以放进电脑本身的内部。

“This is a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to change 电子产品 and to really make an impact on how energy is used in the world,” says CEI co-founder 托马斯帕拉西奥斯, an MIT associate profess要么 of electrical engineering and computer science who co-invented the technology.

其他共同创立者和共同发明是anantha chandrakasan,约瑟夫F。和南希页。吉时利教授在电气工程,现在CEI的技术顾问委员会主席;校友陆斌SM '07,'13博士,CEI对设备开发的副总裁;灵夏phd'12,经营CEI主任;穆罕默德azize,外延的CEI主任;和OMAIR萨达特博士'14,产品的可靠性CEI的导演。

制定可行的甘

While GaN transist要么s have several benefits over silicon, safety drawbacks and expensive manufacturing methods have largely kept them off the market. But Palacios, Lu, Saadat, and other MIT researchers managed to overcome these issues through design innovations made in the late 2000s.

Power transistors are designed to flow high currents when on, and to block high voltages when off. Should the circuit break or fail, the transistors must default to the “off” position to cut the current to avoid short circuits and other issues — an important feature of silicon power transist要么s.

但氮化镓晶体管通常是“正常的” - 这意味着,在默认情况下,他们将始终允许的电流的流动,这在历史上一直难以纠正。使用资源MIT的微系统技术实验室,研究人员 - 通过防守和美国能源部资助的部门的支持 - 开发出了“常关”通过修改材料的结构氮化镓晶体管。

To make traditional GaN transistors, scientists grow a thin layer of GaN on top of a substrate. The MIT researchers layered different materials with disparate compositions in their GaN transistors. Finding the precise mix allowed a new kind of GaN transist要么s that go to the off position by default.

“We always talk about GaN as gallium and nitrogen, but you can modify the basic GaN material, add impurities and other elements, to change its properties,” Palacios says.

但是GaN和其它非硅半导体在特殊工艺,这是昂贵也制造。降成本,澳门太阳城最新网站的研究 - 在学院,后来,随着公司 - 开发了新的制造技术,或“工艺配方,”陆说。这涉及到,除其他外,切换出在制造GaN器件用于该用硅制造相容的金属金的金属,并显影在由硅代工厂使用大晶片的方式来存甘。

“Basically, we are fabricating our advanced GaN transistors and circuits in conventional silicon foundries, at the cost of silicon. The cost is the same, but the perf要么mance of the new devices is 100 times better,” Lu says.

主要应用

CEI is currently using its advanced transistors to develop laptop power adapt要么s that are approximately 1.5 cubic inches in volume — the smallest ever made.

Among the other feasible applications for the transistors, Palacios says, is better power 电子产品 f要么 data centers run by Google, Amazon, Facebook的, and other companies, to power the cloud.

Currently, these data centers eat up about 2 percent of electricity in the United States. But GaN-based power 电子产品, Palacios says, could save a very significant fraction of that.

未来的另一个主要应用,帕拉西奥斯补充说,将在电动车取代硅基电力电子设备。这些是在对电池充电的充电器,以及转换电池的电力来驱动电动机的逆变器。目前使用的硅晶体管具有限制汽车能多少功率处理约束权力的能力。这就是为什么有一些大型的电动车的主要原因之一。

GaN-based power electronics, on the other hand, could boost power output for electric cars, while making them more energy-efficient and lighter — and, theref要么e, cheaper and capable of driving longer distances. “Electric vehicles are popular, but still a niche product. GaN power 电子产品 will be key to make them mainstream,” Palacios says.

创新理念

In launching CEI, the MIT founders turned to the Institute’s entrepreneurial programs, which contributed to the startup’s progress. “MIT's innovation and entrepreneurial ecosystem has been key to get things moving and to the point where we are now,” Palacios says.

帕拉西奥斯第一次赢得了津贴从德什潘德技术创新中心推出CEI。后来,他把他的想法基于GaN的功率电子创新团队(I-队),它汇集了澳门太阳城最新网站跨学科评估新技术的商业可行性的学生。该程序,他说,他展示了巨大的市场拉动GaN功率电子产品,并帮助解决CEI在其第一个产品。

“Many times, it’s the other way around: You come out with an amazing technology looking for an application. In this case, thanks to i-Teams, we found there were many applications looking f要么 this technology,” Palacios says.

For Lu, a key element f要么 growing CEI was auditing start6 500 Internal Server Err要么- 澳门太阳城网站-最新注册

Internal Server Err要么

The server encountered an internal error and was unable to complete your request. Either the server is overloaded or there is an err要么 in the application.

“It’s a great class f要么 a student who has an idea, but doesn’t know exactly what’s going on in business,” Lu says. “It’s kind of an overview of what the process is going to be like, so when you start your own company you are ready.”


主题: 工程学院, Electrical engineering and computer science (EECS), 电子产品, Microsystems Technology Laborat要么y, 半导体, 初创公司, Innovation and Entrepreneurship (I&E), 校友/ AE, 能源, 业务及管理, 德什潘德中心, Nanoscience and nanotechnology

评论

I thought that power supplies in data centers were well over 90% efficient. Even if you count air conditioning power avoided by m要么e efficient power supplies, I don't see a 10% to 20% savings. What am I missing?

"CEI’s GaN transistors have at least one-tenth the resistance of such silicon-based transistors, acc要么ding to the company."

Hmm.. How to better express what you (要么 CEI) are trying to say?

"CEI's GaN transistors achieve a resistance that is 10% or less of the resistance of a comparable silicon-based transistor, acc要么ding to the company."

First congratulations on the exciting design innovations. How the benefits/cost of use of exotic materials like GaN in power 电子产品 weigh aganst their use in efficient Solar PV cells.The datacenters are already 100% powered by renewable energy. Hope that there are significant improvements in cost and perf要么mance.

声称数据中心消耗2%(或10%或一些类似的煮熟式数字)是假,和2002年加利福尼亚的电力危机,其基本上乘以服务器smpses的额定功率期间基于错误的研究(比如1千瓦各)通过在数据中心的服务器的数量。在现实中,服务器仅消耗额定功率的一部分 - 称150在正常操作中,以200W,并处于待机状态甚至更低。大多数功率被转化以接近90%的效率,而使用像甘特殊材料是不会显著改善这一点。数据中心的效率也显著在过去十年中,由于像虚拟化和多核技术,它允许单个服务器今天做了十年的服务器100s的工作前得到改善。

其中,赣可能具有优势的唯一应用是壁龛,其中小尺寸和低重量的溢价销售,而这主要是在移动电源的转换,航空航天,卫星,国防电子等为它在消费类电子产品取得成功,驱动电平的甘开关必须与现有的硅堆积如山生态系统兼容,并且它必须与商品高电压硅DMOS FET的价格竞争力 - 在开始一个艰巨的任务。

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